# Razor Pages

It's a framework for building multiple-pages based websites generated on the server-side.


Razor Pages model was introduced in ASP.NET Core 2.0

The flow is as follows:

  1. A Razor Page is selected by the routing middleware.
  2. The PageModel associated with the page is executed (e.g. OnGet).
  3. The view is rendered using the data from the PageModel.

Pages are stored in the .cshtml files within the Pages directory of a project (by default). Razor is a templating syntax.

Here's an example of Pages/Privacy.cshtml:

@page // Indicates that this is a Razor Page
@model PrivacyModel // Links to a model file (Privacy.cshtml.cs)
    // C# code that is not part of the result HTML
    ViewData["Title"] = "Privacy Policy";

<!-- Result HTML -->

<p>Use this page to detail your site's privacy policy.</p>

The file name matches the URL path. localhost/Privacy will run the Pages/Privacy.cshtml page.

The default Program.cs file looks as follows:

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);


var app = builder.Build();

if (!app.Environment.IsDevelopment())

app.UseRouting(); // selects the Razor Page
app.MapRazorPages(); // executes the selected Razor Page



The following components take up roles in the MVC paradigm:

  • Model - the logic and data provided by our business logic (like some WeatherProviderService)
  • View - the Razor Page template (the .cshtml file)
  • Controller - the .cshtml.cs file containing page's logic. It interacts with the Model and invokes the View (or returns redirect/error)


MVC is a generic pattern used in many languages/frameworks. ASP.NET Core MVC is an example of an implementation of the MVC pattern that uses actions and controllers.

Razor Pages builds on top of the ASP.NET Core MVC, using it under the hood.

Before Razor Pages, developers would use the MVC framework directly.

# Razor Pages vs ASP.NET Core MVC

We can build server-side websites with either Razor Pages or ASP.NET Core MVC directly. In the latter case, we'd have Controllers and action methods within it, just like with the ASP.NET Core Web APIs.

The controller would construct a view model and return a view based on it:

public ActionResult GetToDos(string id)
  var items = _todoProvider.Get(id);
  var viewModel = new TodoViewModel(items);
  return View(viewModel);

In contrast, int the Razor Pages approach, the PageModel is both the Controller and the View Model.

The two approaches are quite similar, but some of the advantages of Razor Pages are:

  • each page is a separate set of files - in MVC, actions of some domain are all in the same controller (by convention), making it large sometimes.
  • Razor Pages has a convention of placing related things close to each other. In MVC all controllers are in one Controllers directory, all view models are in the View Models directory, and all the views are in thh Views directory (with Razor syntax).
  • pages that are static are easier/shorter to code using Razor Pages. In MVC we'd have to add an action that just returns the view (boilerplate code).

Both approaches are pretty similar. Razor Pages should be the preference though.


Razor Pages and MVC approaches can be used together in one application.

# PageModel

Complex logic for a page should be handled in a the PageModel (a base class for page models). We could use it to load data from some DB, etc. It is a "code behind" file, similar to WPF.

The model to use for a Page is specified with the @model directive.


PageModel name is unfortunate. It's a Controller in the MVC paradigm.

The PageModel is executed first, then the page generated.

An example:

public class PrivacyModel : PageModel //base class
  private readonly ILogger<PrivacyModel> _logger;

  public string SomeData {get; set;} // data bound from a request
  // GET requests do not bind data to properties by default.
  // To change that use [BindProperty(SupportsGet = true)]

  public PrivacyModel(ILogger<PrivacyModel> logger)
      _logger = logger;

  public void OnGet()
      // void, Task or PageResult return type means that HTML should be generated

  // max would be bound from the request
  public IActionResult OnPost(int max) 
      // IActionResult can return other things: JSONs, redirects, errors, etc.

    // when binding data (to parameters of properties), validity should be checked
    if (!ModelState.IsValid) 
      return RedirectToPage("./Index");

    // do something...


A PageModel cannot have multiple methods with the same names (like OnGet).

The properties of the model are accessible to the .cshtml view making it possible to render dynamic data from the model. That data, exposed by the PageModel may be called a View Model.


Views shouldn't call methods on the PageModel.

# Binding

Data is bound from:

  1. form
  2. path
  3. query
  4. headers?

By default, the framework looks through all of these sources for each parameter to bind. We can also specify the source explicitly:

public string Id { get; set; }

We can also use it on the method parameters.


To bind the JSON data from body, we have to use FromBody. Without it, data will not be bound!


The ModelBinderAttribute may be used to have a total control over binding. In example, we can change the name of value to be looked for in the request compared to the name in our code.

# Class

If our Page has a few properties to bind from a request, we can introduce a separate class that encompasses that data:

class MyPage : PageModel
  public InputData InputData { get; set; }

  // ...

class InputData 
  public string Category { get; set; }
  public string Product { get; set; }
  public string Color { get; set; }

# Validation

Go to Validation;


By default, the page's file path in the project defines the URL that would execute that page. E.g. and URL /products/list would execute the page at Pages/Products/List.cshtml.

# Handler

A single PageModel class may contain multiple methods to handle requests. The name of the method should contain the HTTP method and, optionally, some additional suffix. If we have multiple methods for the same HTTP method, but with different suffixes, the selected suffix needs to be provided as a handler parameter.

Method name template: On{verb}{handler}[Async].

The handler should be included in the URL template for our Page.

Uncovered Cases

If a request comes in that doesn't match any method on PageModel, the view is generated, but no logic is invoked on the PageModel.

An exception from this rule is the HEAD verb. If OnHead is not defined, OnGet will be executed.

# Data in Razor

Razor Page can access "external" data in the following ways:

  • PageModel's public properties - the recommended way (accessed as @Model.{property})
  • ViewData - a dictionary whose key-values pair may be set from a PageModel. It's useful for passing data between layouts.
  • HttpContext object
  • @inject {service} - we can use services from DI directly in views

# ViewData

ViewData can be set directly in the view itself:


It can also be set in the PageModel:

public class MyModel : PageModel
  // A property of a `PageModel` may be defined as a `ViewData`:
  public string Title { get; set; }

  public void OnGet() 
    Title = "My Title";
    ViewData["Subtitle"] = "My Subtitle";

# Razor Syntax

MSDN (opens new window) is the best place to follow.

# Tag Helpers

Tag Helpers are useful mostly with forms. In general, tag helpers reduce the amount of markup that we have to write, making the HTML more readable and less C#-y.

The HTML elements that have tag helpers attached to them are modified by the framework. No other element can be modified.


Tag Helpers are included as part of the framework. Additionally, we can get more of them from NuGet, or even create our own.

Tag Helpers, like validation, relies on the DataAnnotations.

An example:






@model CheckoutModel

<!-- Tag Helper will generate URL to submit to (adds "action" and "method" HTML attributes) -->
<form asp-page="Checkout">
  <div class="form-group">
    <!-- Label content (from DataAnnotaions' DisplayName or property name itself) -->
    <label asp-for="Input.FirstName"></label>
    <!-- Input type (from DataAnnotations) -->
    <input asp-for="Input.FirstName" />
    <!-- Validation message (from ModelState) -->
    <span asp-validation-for="Input.FirstName"></span>

  <div class="form-group">
    <label asp-for="Input.LastName"></label>
    <input asp-for="Input.LastName" />
    <span asp-validation-for="Input.LastName"></span>

  <button type="submit">Submit</button>

With this markup, the generated HTML elements have proper content, ids, names, client-side validation.

Some tag helpers are about attributes that mey be added to elements (asp-*). Some other tag helpers are completely new HTML elements:

<environment include="Testing,Staginfg">

We could have this functionality without Tag Helpers, we could use some @if. However, Tag Helper makes it shorter and more readable.

# Reusing Code

# Layouts

Razor Pages has a concept of Layouts, which allows to define common structures of web pages. It avoids duplication of common parts of web pages. Layouts can be found in the Pages/Shared directory.

A simple layout example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
  <meta> charset="utf-8" />
  <!-- Title could come from some child view -->
  <!-- Layouts are the place to reference CSS, JS -->
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="~/css/site.css" />

Every layout needs to call the @RenderBody() function. That is where the child view will be rendered. We can also use Sections in a layout to define more spots for rendering content.

For example, layouts could define:

  • a general page structure - navbar, sidebar, footer, and a place to put content
  • multiple-column layout with separate sections to put content in these columns

"_" Prefix

Bot the Layouts and the Partial Views file names should be prefixed with _.

# Choosing a Layout

The base layout should be named _Layout.cshtml. This layout is selected for every Page by default. A different layout may be selected by setting the Layout property in a view (e.g. Layout = "_MyLayout").


Layouts can reference other layouts.

# Partial Views

Another option to use is Partial Views. They act much more similarly like components in SPAs.

  • Layouts define the OUTSIDE of the Page.
  • Partial Views may be included INSIDE of the page

Partial Views are all about HTML markup and reusing it. When using a Partial View we can pass some data into it. Partial Views do not have PageModels associated with them.

<partial name="_MyPartial" model="someData">

Tag Helper

<partial> is a tag helper.

The file of the Partial View may be located anywhere in teh directory tree of the Page that uses it, or in the Pages/Shared or Views/Shared.

# _ViewImports

The _ViewImports.cshtml file may be used to define namespace imports that are common in our application. It can be placed in any directory and it will be used by any Page in that folder and sub-folders. Placing it in the /Pages directory makes it applicable to all pages.

We can use @using and @addTagHelper in _ViewImports.

# _ViewStart

The _ViewStart.cshtml allows us to run some common code BEFORE the view itself executes. It's often used to set the Layout. This way we don't have to do it repeatedly in every page.


Partial Views and Layouts do not run the _ViewStart.cshtml when they execute.

The filesystem placement works the same way as with the _ViewImports files.

Last Updated: 3/12/2023, 5:06:29 PM